B. distribution: paralleling the geographical distribution of coral reefs
in US: Florida 675 square miles
three kinds: red(Rhizophora);blac(Avicennia) and white(laguncularia)
C. Zonation (illustrate with a figure)
D. Enviornmental factors
a). temperature: >=25F
b). tide: 1.a large tidal range is not necessary. 2. mangrove wider than tide range. 3. periodic return of tides->soil saturated with water; amaerobic nature. 4. provide food for feeders. 5. export excesses of organic matter. 6. upstream transport of invertebrate larve and the seed of mangrove.
c). salinity:endure a wide range of salinities: salt is necessary for mangrove and it reduce the competition of other species.
red: pironeer-> water shallower: favorable for black
black: ->more shollower and stagnent
white->upland tropical plants
F. Associated Biota
algae, quickly consumed by mangrove fauna
animal, many species in sharp contrast to low diversity of plants
plankton, constitude but small
G. Human Use and Distrubance
a). direct use: boat, fence...
b). indirect value: protect coast by reducing hurricane damage; land producing
c).ground for many animals of economic importance->fishing
e). some have been largely destroyed by human: overcutting, garbage dumping etc.
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