History of U.S. intervention in Latin America - Draft 2

This discussion topic submitted by Phillip Buerk (buerkpc@miamioh.edu) at 10:25 pm on 5/12/99. Additions were last made on Wednesday, May 7, 2014.

Phillip Buerk
GLG 599
A Brief History of U.S. and Latin America Relations

I. Monroe Doctrine - 1823
A. pre-1823

1. U.S. wished to displace Great Britain as the commercial and territorial powers in the western Hemisphere

2. 1797 - Spain, which controlled much of Latin America, opened its ports to neutral countries, due to conflicts in Europe
a. U.S. export trade increased from 3% to 12%, from 1796 to 1806

3. 1803 Louisiana Purchase from France, which gave the U.S., Louisiana
a. This increased the desire to acquire Texas and Florida, as well as blocking the sale of those two territories to other European powers
4. 1811- No -Transfer Resolution - ordered occupation of West Florida, on the grounds that Spain could not control insurrections (U.S. Settlers), and there was a need to prevent foreign occupation
a. This is significant because it is the first instance the U.S. used the "need to forestall intervention by non-American powers"
5. 1819 - Adams-Onfs Treaty - U.S. Annexed Florida
6. 1822 - President Monroe recognized the independence from Spain of new, sovereign states - Chile, Argentina (the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata), Peru, Columbia and Mexico.
a. The new colonies then came under British neo-colonialism
1. G.B. negotiated commercial treaties, and gave loans
B. Monroe Doctrine
1. Political statement to Europe
a. American continents are free and independent and from then on are not to be considered subjects for future European colonization
b. Declaration that any attempt to extend into the America's by a European power would be a threat to American "peace and safety"
1. This declaration was not a declaration of interference in existing European colonies, but any future interference in independent countries would be considered "unfriendly" toward the U.S.
2. U.S. lacks strength to enforce
a. In the next 20 years there were 4 different interventions in Latin America by Great Britain, that clearly challenged the Monroe pronouncement, but the U.S. was unable to do anything about
3. Statement for the future
a. Although, the U.S. was unable to prevent future interventions by European powers, the stage was set for the U.S. to demonstrate that the Western Hemisphere was to be controlled by the U.S.
b. Moral justification so U.S. could set-up a sphere of influence throughout Latin America
II. Cuba
A. Pre-revolution Cuba
1. Consideration of Cuba as a part of Florida
a. Since conception of the Union
b. Southern slave states
2. U.S. Manifest Destiny
a. 1848- Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - Annexed 1/3 -1/2 Mexico
b. 1853- Gadsden Purchase - southern parts of New Mexico and Arizona
c. 1870 - U.S. almost purchased Dominican Republic, could control all of shipping in Caribbean Sea
B. 1898- Spanish American War
1. Increased U.S. capital in Cuba
a. Largest national sugar company was U.S. owned
b. $50 million invested in Cuba
2. 2/98 USS Maine blows up in Havana Harbor
3. 8/98 Spanish surrender
4. U.S. realized not to try and take over colonial role of Spanish
C. 1901 - Cuban Constitution
1. U.S. was given informal political control - Platt Amendment
a. U.S. was given legal authority to intervene
b. U.S. was given legal authority to preserve independence of Cuba
c. U.S. was given territorial concessions for U.S. Navy base
D. Cuba was given preferential trade status
1. Exports increased to dependence on the U.S. market
a. 1898 - $15 million
c. 1914 - $131 million
E. Result of U.S. success in Cuba - belief U.S. could transform unstable, undemocratic countries into developed western states

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It is 8:51:12 PM on Saturday, October 31, 2020. Last Update: Wednesday, May 7, 2014