GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

Department of Geology/School of Interdisciplinary Studies

WCP 401/GLG 401/501

Spring 2000

Miami University

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GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

Instructors

Dr. Mark Boardman

123 Shideler Hall; boardmmr@miamioh.edu

529-3230

Dr. Hays Cummins

222 Boyd Hall; haysc@miamioh.edu

529-1338

 

This plot was generated from data downloaded from NOAA


A view of the Mt. Kilimanjaro volcano Ice core from the Ohio State Byrd Polar Research Center. Quicktime Movie! (~19mb)

 

Questions the Course Will Address:

  • Is climate changing?
  • How do we measure climate change?
  • What does it matter? What impact will climate change have on me? On life on earth?
  • How fast is climate changing?
  • What can we do about it? Can we do anything about it?
  • Is human activity the cause of climate change?

Course Content:

The course will consist of lectures, discussions, student presentations, exercises (modelling using STELLA), tests, and a final project. Both the presentation (15 minute lecture to the class) and final project (10 page maximum) should include models using STELLA.

Most of the first part of the course will be comprised of lectures by Professors Boardman and Cummins and discussions of the article readings that are assigned. During the second portion of the course each of you will be asked to make a presentation to the class.

Course Meetings:

There will be two 100 minute class meetings per week.

Readings:

The readings we have selected include 1) the most recent, good articles on a subject as well as 2) the classic articles on the subject. We may modify the assigned readings during the course to include late-breaking articles and/or to include remedial articles.

The readings are all on electronic reserve in the Brill Science Library. You must read the articles before each week's meetings. Discussion may occur any time during that week; so be prepared.

Presentations:

We expect your presentation to be as professional as possible. We will speak with each of you regarding your presentation during week 5, and we will ask that you confer frequently with us regarding its progress. Use computer-generated graphics, slides, and models. You will have 15 minutes to make your presentation.

Final Project:

The topic of the final paper / project will be chosen in consultation with your professors during the first half of the course. The final project will be due on the Thursday of week 14, and should be no more than 10 pages of text. It should contain adequate references, figures, tables, etc., and it should be typed (double-spaced, readable font, ...).

Prerequisites:

Either WCP 221 , WCP 222, GLG 244 or permission of the instructor.

Evaluation:

Your grade in the course will be earned according to the following weighting system:
Grade Components
Value
Midterm
15%
Final Exam
15%
Presentation
10%
Final Project
30%
Participation (Assignments, Web Postings, Discussion)
30%

Participation:

This course includes both lectures and classroom discussion. Class discussions are an important part of this course, and student participation is an important part of the class discussions.

A Quicktime Video of a Recent Heavy SW Ohio Snowfall

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Students should come to each class prepared to discuss the reading assignments. During a typical class, each student will be called upon to respond to questions and/or to add his/her ideas to the discussion. A log of student "participation" will be kept by the instructors, and this log will be shared with individual students several times during the course; so that students know how they are performing and what is expected of them in terms of participation.

[Purdue Weather Processor]

 

Synergy. Two of the tropical Pacific's climate cycles turned warm simultaneously in the early 1980s, fueling the 1982-83 El Niño. From Kerr. R.A. 1999. In North American Climate, a More Local Control. Science 283:1109.


Books, Articles, Journals, Library Resources

A Little "Jump Start" for your Presentations and Projects!

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The Current Issue of Scientific American

Science Magazine

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On 4/20/00, We Visited The Byrd Polar Research Center at Ohio State--we had a magnificent tour of the facility. Large Quicktime Movie! (~50mb)

A view of the Mt. Kilimanjaro volcano Ice core from the Byrd Polar Research center. Smaller Quicktime Movie! (~19mb)


Global Climate Change, Spring 2000, Student Research Database

Student Research Feedback and Peer Review


The Search for a Project Topic:Let the Fun Begin

Everyone will be involved in a semester long research project. This work will require an extensive statement of the topic of interest in combination with an in-depth literature review. The research topic must be integrated with data analysis and interpretation. The report will include actual research data obtained and analyzed from sources on NOAA's World Wide Web Paleoclimate Database (or other sources) as well as the most recent literature sources that address your research interests on global change. The report will take the form of a professional journal article. The report will be presented orally as well at the end of the semester.

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How might the chemical weathering of the Himalayas change climate?

Course Syllabus

FTP The Latest Additions to Your "Weekly Readings"

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Course Schedules--Topics, Readings & Assignments

Week
Topic
Reading/Other Assignments
1

Introduction to the Course: A General Overview and Expectations

Energy and Mass
Weather Map Fundamentals

Fundamentals of the heat budget;

Weather& Climate, Ch. 13, 1, 2 &3

Lab: The Sun Lab--Finding Our Latitude Using Sun Angles
Due: Week 3

2

Water in the Atmosphere-Moisture and Clouds

General atmospheric circulation
General oceanic circulation (surface and deep)

Weather& Climate, Ch. 4&5

3

Water in the Atmosphere-Precipitation Processes

Distribution & Movement of Air-Pressure & Wind

Post Project Ideas

**Sun Lab Due

Weather& Climate, Ch.6 & 7

4

Distribution & Movement of Air-/Circulation & Pressure Distributions

Air Masses & Fronts

Provide Feedback to Peers

Weather& Climate, Ch. 8 & 9

5

Atmospheric Disturbances-Cyclones, Lightning, Thunder, Tornadoes and Hurricanes

Provide Feedback to Peers

Weather& Climate, Ch.10, 11, & 12

6

 

Human Activities--Forecasting and Analysis

Post Research Proposal

Weather& Climate, Ch. 13 & 14

7

Human Activities

Weather& Climate, Ch. 15 & 16

8

MIDTERM TEST

 

Mountain building and weathering

Post Progress Reports
Provide Feedback to Peers


Beck et al. (1995)
Kerrick and Caldeira (1993)
Molnar and England (1990)
Raymo (1994)

9 Terrestrial carbon, rain forests, wetlands

Post Progress Reports
Webb and Bartlein (1992)
Ciais, et al. (1995)
Wahlen (1993)
10 Marine reservoirs, gas hydrates Post Progress Reports
Calvert (1987)
Curry (1988)
Kvenvolden (1988; 1993)
11 Volcanism and climate Post Progress Reports
Rampino (1988)
Simkin (1993)
12
Asteroid impacts
Post Progress Reports
To be assigned
13


Oxygen, ozone, UV radiation; evolution of limestone and life

Hansen et al. (1989)
14

Student Research Presentations

Present day "Global Warming"
Greenhouse gases, emissions, human impact on climate change


Lindzen (1990)
Kellogg (1991)
15

Student Research Presentations

Future climates
impact of climate change on humans (e.g. Little Ice Age)

Final Project PostingsTurn in hard copy and post a "soft copy."

Roemmich and McGowan (1995)
Peters (1988)


REFERENCES

Text:

Aguado, E, and J. Burt. 1999. Understanding Weather & Climate, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

Readings:


ALLEY, R. B. & AND TEN OTHERS (1993) Abrupt increase in Greenland snow accumulation at the end of the Younger Dryas event. Nature, 362, 527-529.

ANDREWS, J. T.,ERLENKEUSER, H.,TEDESCO, K.,AKSU, A. E. & JULL, A. J. T. (1994) Late Quaternary (Stage 2 and 3) meltwater and Heinrich events, Northwest Labrador Sea. Quaternary Research, 41, 26-34.

BECK, R. A.,BURBANK, D. W.,SERCOMBE, W. J.,OLSON, T. L. & KHAN, A. M. (1995) Organic carbon exhumation and global warming during the early Himalayan collision. Geology, 23, 387-390.

BLANCHON, P. & SHAW, J. (1995) Reef drowning during the last deglaciation: evidence for catastrophic sea-level rise and ice-sheet collapse. Geology, 23, 4-8.

BOND, G.,BROECKER, W.,JOHNSEN, S.,MCMANUS, J.,LABEYRIE, L.,JOUZEL, J. & BONANI, G. (1993) Correlations between climate and records from North Atlantic sediments and Greenland ice. Nature, 365, 143-147.

BOYLE, E. A. (1992) Cadmium and &Mac182;13C paleochemical ocean distributions during the stage 2 glacial maximum. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 20, 245-287.

CALVERT, S. E. (1987) Oceanogrpahic controls on the accumulation of organic matter in marine sediments. In: Marine Petroleum Source Rocks (Ed. byBrooks, J. and Fleet, A.J.). Geological Society of London Special Publication. 26, pp. 137-153. London.

CANE, M. A. (1986) El Nino. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 14, 43-70.

CIAIS, P.,TANS, P. P.,TROLIER, M.,WHITE, J. W. C. & FRANCEY, R. J. (1995) A large northern hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C / 12C ratio of atmospheric CO2. Science, 269, 1098-1102.

CURRY, W. B. (1988) Changes in the distribution of &Mac182;13C of deep water &Mac183;CO2 between the last glaciation and the Holocene. Paleoceanography, 3, 317-341.

DANSGAARD, W. & AND TEN OTHERS (1993) Evidence of general instability of past climate from a 250-kyr ice-core record. nature, 364, 218-220.

FAIRBANKS, R. G. (1989) A 17,000 year glacio-eustatic sea level record: influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep ocean circulation. Nature, 342, 637-642.
___ (1990) The age and origin of the "Younger Dryas climate event" in Greenland ice cores. Paleoceanography, 5, 937-948.

FISCHER, A. G. (1986) Climatic rhythms recorded in strata. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 14, 351-376.

HANSEN, J.,LACIS, A. & PRATHER, M. (1989) Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94, 16417-16422.

HAY, W. W. (1993) The role of polar deep water formation in global climate change. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 21, 227-254.

IMBRIE, J.& IMBRIE, K. P. (1979) Ice Ages: solving the mystery. Enslow Publishers, Short Hills, NJ, 224pp.IMBRIE, J.&

IMBRIE, K. P. (1979) Ice Ages: solving the mystery. Enslow Publishers, Short Hills, NJ, 224pp.

KELLOGG, W. W. (1991) Response to skeptics of global warming. American Meteorologial Society, Bull., 74, 499-511.

KERRICK, D. & CALDEIRA, K. (1993) Paleoatmospheric consequences of CO2 released during early Cenozoic regional metamorphism in the Tethyan orogen. Chemical Geology, 108, 201-230.

KVENVOLDEN, K. A. (1988) Methane hydrate: a major reservoir of carbon in the shallow geosphere? Chemical Geology, 71, 41-51.
___ (1993) Gas hydrates: geological perspective and global change. Reviews of Geophysics, 31, 173-187.

LINDZEN, R. S. (1990) Some coolness concerning global warming. American Meteorological Society, 71, 288-299.

MOLNAR, P. & ENGLAND, P. (1990) Late Cenozoic uplift of mountain ranges and global climate change: chicken or egg? Nature, 346, 29-34.

PETERS, R. L. (1988?) Effects of global warming on species and habitats. Endangered Species UPDATE, 5 (7), 1-8.

PRINN, R. G. & FEGLEY JR., B. (1987) The atmospheres of Venus, Earth and Mars: a critical comparison. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 171-212,

RAMPINO, M. R.,SELF, S. & STOTHERS, R. B. (1988)

Volcanic winters. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 16, 73-99.

RAYMO, M. (1994) The Himalayas, organic carbon burial, and climate in the Miocene. Paleoceanography, 9, 399-404

RAYMO, M. E. (1994) The initiation of northern hemisphere glaciation. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 22, 353-383.

ROEMMICH, D. & MCGOWAN, J. (1995) Climatic warming and the decline of zooplankton in the California current. Science, 267, 1324-1326.

SHACKLETON, N. J. (1987) The carbon isotope record of the Cenozoic: history of organic carbon burial and of oxygen in the ocean and atmosphere. In: Marine Petroleum Source Rocks (Ed. byBrooks, J. and Fleet, A.J.). Geological Society of London Special Publication. 26, pp. 423-434. London.

SIMKIN, T. (1993) Terrestrial volcanism in space and time. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 21, 427-452.

WAHLEN, M. (1993) The global methane cycle. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 21, 407-426.

WEBB III, T. & BARTLEIN, P. J. (1992) Global changes during the last 3 million years: climatic controls and biotic responses. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 23, 141-173.


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