The extreme tidal flow (~1 meter/sec) at Pigeon Creek, San Salvador, was measured with a current meter in "Blow-Outs" in the main channel.
I’ve always been attracted to plants for many different reasons. One of the first is the spectacular colors and shapes of plants and their flowers. Last year after surveying much of the Costa Rican vegetation, I became even more fascinated with a certain kind of plant species known as the orchid. As most everyone that has seen a beautiful orchid knows, they are probably the most stunning of all plants in the world. After furthering my studies in botany I found more facts about orchids that I hadn’t before seen. One of these is the intense interaction between orchids and fungi, specifically mycorrhizal fungi. So I chose to report on this interaction
a) Orchid seed production and structure
b) Orchid flower structure
a) Mycorrhizal fungi
3) General info. Concerning mycorrhizae interactions
4) Function of Orchidaceous mycorrhizae
b) Seed germination
c) Nutrient exchange
5) Orchid control of fungi colonisation
Dodson, Calaway H. Orchid Flowers, their Pollination and Evolution. University of Miami press. 1966
Fox, Gordon A. The Ecology of Plants. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Publishers. Sunderland, Mass. 2002.
Harley, J.L. & Smith, S.E., 1983. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic Press, New York. 483 pages.
Krichner, John. A Neotropical Companion. Princeton University Press, New Jersey. 1997.
Masuhara, G and Katsuya, K.In situ and in vivo specificity between Rhizoctonia spp and Spiranthes sinensis (Persoon) Ames var amoena (Orchidaceae). New Phytologist 127, 711 – 718. 1994
Mosse, B., 1956. Fructifications of an Endogone species causing endotrophic mycorrhizae in fruit plants. Ann. Bot. (London) 20: 349-362.
MF, Allen (ed). Mycorrhizal Functioning. Chapman & Hall, New York. 1992
Reinikka, Merle A. A History of the Orchid. University of Miami press. 1972
Smith, SE and Read, DJ. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic Press, London. 1997
Sylvia, D.M. & Williams, S.E., 1992. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae and environmental stress. In, Mycorrhizae in Sustainable Agriculture. G.J. Bethlenfalvay & R.G. Linderman Eds. ASA Special Publication Number 54, Madison Wisconsin 101-124.
The Microbial World, Mycorrhizas. Http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/microbes/mycorrh.htm, 2000
Biodiversity of Mycorrhizal Fungi. http://res2.agr.gc/ecorc/mycor/bio_sols_e.htm, 1997
Function of Orchid Mycorrhizas. http://bugs.bio.usyd.edu.au/mycology/plantinteractions/mycorrhiza/orchidmycorrhiza/function/text.htm 1999.
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