Conservation of Coral Reefs-Outline

This topic submitted by Katie Kettler ( at 9:23 PM on 3/27/03.

A view of our boat at Gaulin Reef in the Bahamas

Tropical Field Courses -Western Program-Miami University

Conservation of Coral Reefs
I. Coral reef introduction
A. What are they?
1. Diverse marine ecosystems
2. Provide protection, medicine, and tourism
3. Constructed from coal secretion of calcium carbonate
4. Symbiosis with algae for food production
B. What affects them?
1. Sunlight
2. Water quality and clarity
3. Sedimentation
C. Types of Coral
1. Hard corals
a. Boulder
b. Elkhorn
c. Pillar
2. Soft corals
a. Sea fan
b. Sponges
D. Where are coral reefs located?

II. Conservation
A. Threats to Coral reefs
1. Human impact
a. Population stress
b. Increased sediment load
c. Shipping
d. Development along shorelines
e. Overfishing
f. Habitat destruction
g. Pollution
h. Careless Tourism
i. Ocean warming and bleaching
B. Why should we protect coral reefs?
1. Home for fish
2. Biodiversity Hot Spots
3. Undiscovered pharmaceuticals
4. Tourism
5. Buffers

United States Coral Reef Task Force. 2003.
Bohnsack, J. A. (1996). “The impacts of fishing on coral reefs.” Biological Conservation 76(2): 211.
Edinger, E. N. R., Michael J. (2000). “Reef classification by coral morphology predicts coral reef conservation value.” Biological Conservation 92(1): 1-13.
Grenfell, A. M., Spalding, M.D. (1997). “New estimates of global and regional coral reef areas.” Coral Reef 16(4): 225-230.
Hernandez, G. (2003). Coral Reef, NOAA. 2003.
Hodgson, G. (1999). “A Global Assessment of Human Effects on Coral Reefs.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 38(5): 345-355.
Hoffmann, T. C. (2002). “Coral reef health and effects of socio-economic factors in Fiji and Cook Islands.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 44(11): 1281-1293.
McClanahan, T. R., Obura, D. (1997). “Sedimentation effects on shallow coral communities in Kenya.” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 209(1-2): 103-122.
McClanahan, T. R. (2000). “Bleaching Damage and Recovery Potential of Maldivian Coral Reefs.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 40(7): 587-597.

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