Creation of National Parks and Wildlife Refuges FINAL

This topic submitted by Eli Balkin ( at 7:47 PM on 5/31/03.

Erin and Ann reinacted "The Titanic" at the Lighthouse on San Salvador, Bahamas. See other beautiful phenomena from the Bahamas.

Tropical Field Courses -Western Program-Miami University

The practice of protecting marine wildlife has become a fundamental staple of ecological and conservation thought in the last twenty years, but this is both a recent and complicated process. Numerous areas including many of the waters surrounding the Florida Keys have been declared National Wildlife Refuges. This classification helps to protect the plants and animals living in these delicate zones from commercial exploitation or from exploitive/destructive tourism. The development of this classification was, as the creation of many legal documents is, a highly interdisciplinary pursuit which united a diverse collection of individuals. My paper will explore the process of creating marine national parks. My research will follow this process from the collection of scientific data to the interpretation of that data all the way to the application of that information. Although there will be significant discussion of the legislative process involved, there will be great focus placed on the interaction between the environmental/ecological researcher and the legal system. Additionally, a portion of the essay will be devoted to understanding the roadblocks, both political and practical that lay in the path of wildlife refuge creation.Although the information presented will be both fair and balanced, in has become clear to me through my preliminary research that many necessary steps have been overlooked and a great deal of reputable scientific data has been discarded by those opposed to the wildlife refuge system. This paper will unite data from multiple sources to explain the process of refuge creation and establish a rationally grounded base for the further development of the park/refuge system.

Why save these areas?
What lives there?
The Process:
Political/legal terminology VS Ecological terminology
The steps to the process
Barriers in the process
Other efforts:
International projects
Privet projects

Bauchner Joshua S.. Intrernationsl Regulitory Devices: Legal Research Guides to the EU Data Protection Directive and the Convention of Biological Diversity. Buffalo: William S. Hein & Co., Inc., 2001.

Mangun, William R.. American Fish and Wildlife Police: The Human Dimension. Chicago: Southern Illinois University, 1992.

Snape, William. Biodiversity and the Law. Washington D.C.: Island Press, 1996.

Topbin, Richard. The Expendable Future: US Politics and the Protection of Biological Diversity. London: Duke University Press, 1990.

Wagner, Fredric H.. Wildlife Policies. Washington D.C.: Island Press, 1995.

Wood, Don A,. Florida's Fragile Wildlife. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.

Yaffee, Steven Lewis. The Wisdom of the Spotted Owl: Policy Lessons for a New Century. Washington D.C.: Island Press, 1994.

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