Parrot Fish

This topic submitted by Jared Leonard ( at 1:05 AM on 4/9/03.

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Tropical Field Courses -Western Program-Miami University

I am going to give a talk on Parrot fish for my class presentation this summer. Parrot fish (Order Perciformes, Family scaridae) are very common to the reefs that we will be studying in the Bahamas. These fish have some very interesting traits, including unique sleeping habits and a hermaphroditic reproductive strategy. I have been interested in these fish since I first saw them in St. Thomas when I was 15 years old.

I. Taxonomy
II. Range
III. Food habits, feeding behavior
IV. Fecundity
A. Reproductive habits (time and place of spawning)
B. Spawning behavior
V. Age and growth
VI. Environmental requirements and tolerances
A. Temperature
B. Oxygen
C. Salinity
D. Light
E. Current/Depth
VII. Evolutionary history
VIII. History in relation to humans


Bortone, S.A., and Davis, W.P. Fish Intersexuality as Indicator of Environmental Stress. Bioscience. Vol. 44. March 1994.

Fischer, E.A. Mating Systems of Simultaneously Hermaphroditic Serranid Fishes. Indio-Pacific Fish Biology. Ichthyological Society of Japan, Tokyo. 776-784 pp. 1986.

Fischer, E.A. and Petersen, C.W. Mating System of the Hermaphroditic Coral-reef Fish, Serranus baldwini. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Vol.19. 171-178 pp. 1986.

Fischer, E.A. and Petersen, C.W. The Evolution of Sexual Patterns in the Seabasses. Bioscience. Vol. 37.July/August 1987.

Shapiro, D.Y. Sex Reversal and Sociodemographic Processes in Coral Reef Fishes. Fish Reproduction: Strategies and Tactics. 1984.

Shapiro, D.Y. Differentiation and Evolution of Sex Change in Fishes. Bioscience. Vol. 37. July/August 1987.

Warner, R. Metamorphosis Among Tropical Fish, When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Change Sex. Science. December 1982.

Warner, R. Sex Change in Fishes: hypothesis, evidence, and objections. Environmental Biology of Fishes. Vol. 22. 81-90 pp. October 1988.

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