Tropical Angelfish Outline - Draft#1

This topic submitted by Taryn Nye ( at 8:40 PM on 3/29/03.

Melissa works on her journal at the Mangrove Inn, Bocas, Panama!

Tropical Field Courses -Western Program-Miami University

Taryn Nye

The Angelfish is a very important reef fish in many tropical ecosystems, especially in the Indo Pacific and the Southwestern Atlantic. These fish have disc shaped bodies, small mouths, comb-like teeth, and vibrant colors; they are of close relation to the butterfly fish. Butterflyfishes and Angelfishes are both in the family Chaetodontidae. Many characteristics (like coloration) of angelfish change between their juvenile and adult life spans. These fish are often disease resistant; they live long, and are known to make good aquarium fish. When the dominant male in the habitat leaves a female often undergoes a sex change and takes over the dominant male role. However, some species are known to be mates for life. The angelfish is active at day and sheltered at night. They are sometimes known as coral fish and are recognized by their amazing colors.
I believe this is one of the many important topics on marine fish. These angelfish can teach us not only about themselves but about the important relationships to all fish in the tropical oceans. Many of the behaviors and conditions of the angelfish apply to others as well. The angelfish particularly is interesting because of its many unique behaviors. However, they are involved in the universal conservation and preservation efforts of the tropical ecosystems. Most of all I think they are beautiful fish that can be very interesting to study.



I. Classification
a. Family
b. Types

II. Anatomy

III. Range
a. Maps
b. Locations

IV. Environment
a. Cleaning Symbiosis
i. Definition
ii. Behavior
iii. Clients
b. Conservation Effectiveness in Reserves
c. Other Relationships to Reefs

V. Feeding
a. Digestive System
b. Herbivores or Omnivores?

VI. Threats
a. Disease
b. Predators
c. Human Environmental Impact
i. Human Caused
ii. Limited Ranges
iii. Vulnerability
iv. Population Extinctions
d. Species Extinctions

VII. Behavior
a. Sex Change
b. Courting Patterns
c. Self-Defense Mechanisms


Annotated Bibliography

Hughes, Terry., Bellwood, David., and Connolly, Sean. Biodiversity hotspots, centres of endemicity, and the conservation of coral reefs. Ecology Letters. 2002: 775-784.

~ Frequency Distribution in the Indo and Western Pacific.

Gerber, Leah.., Kareiva, Peter., and Bascompte, Jordi. The influence of life history attributes and fishing pressure on the efficacy of marine reserves. Biological Conservation. 11 September 2001: 11-18.

IV. Marine Reserves
b. Conservation Effectiveness
Perez-Espana, H., and Cardenas, Abitia. Description of the digestive tract and feeding habits of the king angelfish and the Cortes angelfish. Journal of Fish Biology. 12 June 1995: 807-817.

V. Angelfish in Gulf of California
a. Digestive Tracts
b. Angelfish as grazers
c. Analysis of Stomach contents
d. Comparison of Two Pacific Fish
Perez-Espana, H., and Diaz, Martinez. Feasible mechanisms for algal digestion in the king angelfish. Journal of Fish Biology. 4 June 1999: 692-703.

V. a. Digestive System in the King Angelfish
Roberts, Callum., and Hawkins, Julie. Extinction risk in the sea. Environmental Dept., University of York. York, UK.

VI. c. Human Impact on Oceans
i. Human Caused
ii. Limited Ranges
iii. Vulnerability
iv. Population Extinctions
v. Species Extinctions
Sakai, Yoichi., Tsujimura Chihiro., Yukari Nakata., Tanabe, Hisayo., and Maejima, Go. Rapid transition in sexual behaviors during protogynous sex change in the haremic angelfish Centropyge vroliki (Pomacanthidae). Ichthyological Research Society of Japan. 6 September 2002: 30-35.

VII. a. Sex Change in the Angelfish
Sazima, Ivan., Moura, Rodrigo., and Sazima, Christina. Cleaning activity of juvenile angelfish, Pomacanthus paru, on the reefs of the Abrolhos Archipelago, western South Atlantic. Environmental Biology of Fishes. Published in the Netherlands, 1999: 399-407.

IV. a. . Cleaning Symbiosis
i. Definition
ii. Behavior
iii. Clients

The French Angelfish, Pomacanthus paru. The Conscientious Marine Aquarist.
Angelfish Pictures, Available: Pictures
The angelfish. (2002) PageWise Inc.
Angelfish: Beauties of the Reef. Green Reef, Belize.
Angelfish. (2002-2003) Enchanted Learning.

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