James returns from a wonderful SCUBA on Gaulin Reef in Grahams Harbor, San Salvador, Bahamas. See other beautiful phenomena from the Bahamas.
May 15, 2004
Tropical Ecosystems of Costa Rica
The vast diversity of plant-pollinator interactions is staggering, from insect pollinators such as moths, bees and ants to birds and even opossums. The tropics host many plant species and thus provide a diverse collection plant pollinating mechanisms and interactions. Plant-pollinator interactions are often regarded as a mutualistic arrangement, the pollinator receives food and the plant receives the benefit of pollen transfer. However, there are relatively few studies that have confirmed how truly beneficial interactions are and some have documented cases of pollinators tipping the odds in their favor. Pollinating species considered to be nectar robbers seem to give little, or no benefit to the plant and may actually harm plant fitness overall. This can be manifest in reduction of seed set and reduced availability of nectar for legitimate pollinators. Plants are not blameless though as many “deceptively” advertise food and sex but deliver little or no reward to their pollinator. More research is needed to further elucidate the importance and abundance of these types of interactions, but in the tropics nectar thievery and plant deceptions are likely a common evolutionary “cheat”.
The tropics contain a seemingly limitless diversity of plant and animal species. In fact, tropical lowland forests are likely the most speciose of all terrestrial ecosystems (Turner, 1996). Therefore interactions among species, such as plant-pollinator interactions, are impressively diverse and numerous in the tropics. Plants have coevolved many close, specific interactions with other organisms to aid in pollen dispersal. Plants, being relatively immobile, depend somewhat on other more mobile organisms both in terms of seed and pollen dispersal. The paucity of information regarding many of these interactions are a direction for future study. However, some plant-pollinator interactions have been extensively studied and the variety in pollinator mechanisms are remarkable. Whether spread by insects, birds or mammals the relationships between plants and their pollinators make for incredible stories and are both vital to ecosystem functioning and the maintenance of biodiversity.
Ornithophilous plants, or those pollinated by birds, may have other pollinators but birds carry out much of the work of pollination for these species. Hummingbirds are a relatively well-studied example.Lasso and Naranjo (2003) found that eight hummingbird species visited the shrub Hamelia patens during a 54-hour period near the La Selva field station in Costa Rica. Temporal patterns of flower visitation by avian nectivores closely matched the pattern of nectar production of the shrub. Like many hummingbird-pollinated species, H. patens has a tubular flower which hummingbirds can easily access with their long, curved beaks. Hummingbird pollinators are often attracted to flowers with mechanisms that utilize volatile chemical compounds and attractive coloration, similar to insect attractants. However pollinator attraction can also differ in important ways for birds. In fact, researchers have found that hummingbird pollinated species prefer flowers that reflect light at longer wavelengths compared to insect pollinated species (Altschuler, 2003). Pollen transfer can be relatively specific to certain species of hummingbirds as well. In Costa Rica two types of Heliconia plants, with differing flower morphology, are pollinated by two distinct types of hummingbird – those with long,, curved beaks and those with short, straight beaks. The physical structure of plant parts in the two types of Heliconia regulate where pollen is deposited. For plants pollinated by birds with long, curved beaks (hermits) pollen is most often deposited on the head or base of the beak (Stiles, 1975). Much work has been done to understand hummingbird pollination but even less is known about mammal pollination systems.
The tropics have a wide diversity of plants and the examples of plant-pollinator interactions are endless. As researchers become increasingly aware of the delicacy of these interactions, the implications to conservation are substantial. The tropics are biodiversity hotspots and rapid conversion of forests to other land-uses undoubtedly has serious deleterious effects on the integrity of plant-pollinator interactions (Borgella et al, 2001). Plants cannot survive without their pollinators and likewise pollinators will suffer in absence of plants on which they are dependent. Pollination is an important ecosystem service that helps to maintain both plant and animal diversity and greater understanding of plant-pollinator interactions will help both to value and conserve them.
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