This Ant is an "Aphid Rancher." (SE Costa Rica)
A. 3 Types of Mangroves
B. Origins of Mangroves
1. Relations to coral reefs
2. Quarternary temperature effects
C. Global Distribution
1. Quarternary Environment
2. Sea-Level Change
D. Anthropogenic Disturbances
1. Road Construction
2. Upland Forest Clearing
3. Pohnpei Island Mangrove
E. Natural Disturbances
1. Best Management Practices
2. Understanding goods and services of Mangroves
Ewel et al. Different Kinds of Mangrove Forests Provide different goods and services. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters. Vol. 7, No. 1, Biodiversity and Function of Mangrove Ecosystems. (Jan., 1998), pp. 83-94.
Lugo, Ariel E. Mangrove Ecosystems: Successional or Steady-State? Biotropica, Vol. 12, No. 2, Supplement: Tropical Succession (Jun, 1980), pp. 65-72.
Duke et al. Factors Influencing Biodiversity and Distributionsl Gradients in Mangroves. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters. Vol. 7, No. 1, Biodiversity and Function of Mangrove Ecosystems. (Jan. 1998), pp. 27-47.
Ellison, Aaron M., Farnsworth, Elizabeth J. Anthropogenic Disturbance of Caribbean Mangrove Ecosystems: Past Impacts, Present Trends, and Future Predictions. Biotropica. Vol. 28, No. 4, Part A: Longterm responses of Caribbean Ecosystems to disturbances. (Dec. 1996), pp. 549-565.
Thom et al. Mangrove Ecology and Deltaic-Estuarine Geomorphology: Cambridge Gulf-Ord River, Western Australia. The Journal of Ecology. Vol. 63, No. 1 (Mar. 1975), pp. 203-232.
Clark, R.L., and Guppy Csiro, J.C. A Transition from Mangrove Forest to Freshwater Wetland in the Monsoon Tropics of Australia. Journal of Biogeography. Vol. 15, No.4, (Jul. 1988), pp. 665-684.
Roth, Linda C. Hurricanes and Mangrove regeneration: Effects of Hurricane Jane on the Vegetation of Isla del Venado, Bluefields, Nicaragua. Biotropica, Vol. 24, No. 3, (Sep.1992), pp. 375-384.
Michener et al. Climate Change, Hurricanes and Tropical Storms, and Rising Sea Level in Coastal Wetlands. Ecological Applications, Vol. 7, No. 3, (Aug. 1997), pp. 770-881.
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