This stingray seems to be flying at Molasses Reef, Key Largo, Florida.
I. What is Coral Bleaching
1. Environmental conditions
2. Symbiotic algae
II. Ecological Implications
B. Symbiotic Relationships
C. Storm Surges
D. Land use and Water management practices
III. Global Climate Change Implications
A. El Nino and La Nina
B. Sea Surface Temperature
IV. Conservation Methods
B. 1999 State Dept. Report
Rease, J.K. et al. Coral Bleaching and Global Climate Change: Scientific Findings and Policy
Recommendations. Conservation Biology, Vol. 14, No. 5. (Oct., 2000), pp. 1500-1511.
Smith, R.V., R. W. Buddemeier. Global Change and Coral Reef Ecosystems (in Special Section on
Global Environmental Change)Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, Vol. 23. (1992), pp.
Roberts, Leslie. Coral Bleaching Threatens Atlantic Reefs (in Research News)
Science, New Series, Vol. 238, No. 4831. (Nov. 27, 1987), pp. 1228-1229.
Porter, J.W. et al. The Effect of Multiple Stressors on the Florida Keys Coral Reef Ecosystem: A
Landscape Hypothesis and a Physiological Test. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 44, No. 3,
Part 2: The Effects of Multiple Stressors on Freshwater and Marine Ecosystems. (May, 1999),
Harvell, C.D., et al. Emerging Marine Diseases -- Climate Links and Anthropogenic Factors (in
Science's Compass; Review). Science, New Series, Vol. 285, No. 5433. (Sep. 3, 1999), pp.
Goreau, T. et al. Conservation of Coral Reefs after the 1998 Global Bleaching Event (in Issues in
International Conservation). Conservation Biology, Vol. 14, No. 1. (Feb., 2000), pp. 5-15.
Ellen, R. M. Druffel. Geochemistry of Corals: Proxies of past Ocean Chemistry, Ocean Circulation,
and Climate (in Papers from a Colloquium). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America, Vol. 94, No. 16. (Aug. 5, 1997), pp. 8354-8361.
Fong, Peggy, Peter W. Glynn. A Regional Model to Predict Coral Population Dynamics in Response to
El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Ecological Applications, Vol. 10, No. 3. (Jun., 2000), pp.
For Further Info on this Topic, Check out this WWW Site: www.coralreef.gov.
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