SLEEP: THE EFFECTS OF AEROBIC & ANAEROBIC EXERCISE

This topic submitted by PHELPS, SEDIVY, WISEMAN, VAN ARSDALE ( vanarsgc@miamioh.edu ) on 10/27/03 .
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Natural Systems 1 Syllabus---Western Program---Miami University



SLEEP: THE EFFECTS OF AEROBIC & ANAEROBIC EXERCISE
KRISTEN PHELPS
GREG VAN ARSDALE
CHRIS SEDIVY
LAURA WEISMAN


INTRODUCTION

Does a correlation exist between one’s average weekly exercise and one’s average sleep per night? If so, does the type of exercise, aerobic or anaerobic, affect differently one’s average nightly sleep? Is there a relationship between one’s sleep cycle (night time sleeping vs. day time napping) and one’s exercising habits? Does one’s major affect the amount of sleep they get? Finally, do the results have noticeable differences, in regard to the individuals’ genders?

It is our hypothesis that the amount of exercise an individual performs during the week directly affects the amount of sleep one gets on a nightly/daily basis. Specifically, we expect those who report that they exercise will also report a longer, largely diurnal sleep cycle. We expect those who report that they exercise little or none will report less sleeping during the night but increased napping during the day. The correlation between napping and exercise, or lack of exercise, rather, will likely show that less physical activity leads to irregular sleep during the night therefore contributing to daytime fatigue, hence increased napping.
An added factor in our population study is the type of exercise, aerobic, anaerobic, or both, that one performs on a regular basis. Here, we hypothesize that those who exercise aerobically will enjoy on average, more nightly sleep and nap less during the day. One may surmise that this is a result of the strenuousness of cardiovascular activity. Unlike lifting weights, aerobics, like running or jumping rope, push the entire body at once thereby exacerbating the amount of fatigue suffered by the body as a whole. Anaerobic exercise, on the other hand, pushes only a portion of the body at one time, and does not work the heart itself as hard. Therefore, this type of exercise should not lead to as much restful sleep as that of cardiovascular exercise.
Finally, in accordance to the results of an earlier survey similar to this lab, we hypothesize that males exercise more than females eaning on average they sleep more nightly, as well. Also, we will take each person’s major (architecture or western) into account in comparing the data. This variable may also explain the difference in the amount of sleep and exercise that various people get because of the range in time-consuming homework.
By performing this lab, our group hopes to determine a logical relationship between the amount one exercises and the average amount of sleep one enjoys per night. Additionally, we hope to learn which method of exercise, aerobic or anaerobic, lends to a better night’s sleep. Finally, we will determine a relationship between exercise, sleep and gender.
This research intrigues us because it addresses a question close to all of our live: whether or not exercise helps us sleep. Should the results point strongly toward exercise as a panacea to fatigue and off-kilter sleep cycles it is likely that this writer, as least, will increase his weekly exercise.

BACKGROUND INFO: ARTICLES
We found several sites that relate to our research. There have not been a large amount of studies done comparing anaerobic and aerobic exercise and their effects on sleep, which is why we chose to include that in our study. There have been many studies on the differences in the two types of exercise as well as the correlation between sleep and exercise in general. Many scientists have proven that exercise improves the amount of sleep that one gets. Other research that has been done has proven that exercise increases the amount of REM sleep (the deepest stage of sleep) that one gets. Some researchers have speculated that only fit subjects who are capable of performing intense exercise get the benefits of sleep enhancement. Overall, more exercise and more sleep will lead to healthier lifestyles that every human needs.
In the articles that we have found relating to our topic, there has been much evidence that there is indeed a correlation between exercise and sleep. It has been proven that people who exercise more often sleep for a longer period. Although we still need to conduct our detailed research, it seems that the evidence sways towards our hypothesis. To make this idea more interesting and complex, we have decided to look at the differences in aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Studies have shown that these two different types of exercise affect one’s health in different ways.
Aerobic exercise is continuous activity involving the major muscle groups, such as swimming, running, or brisk walking. Your heart and respiratory rate increase, and more oxygen is circulated through the body. This kind of exercise strengthens your cardiovascular system and increases your overall strength and stamina. The goal of aerobic exercise is for your pulse to reach a training rate that is appropriate for your age.
There is also anaerobic exercise. This is when you are not exercising vigorously or long enough to reach and maintain your appropriate heart rate. It does not mean, however, that anaerobic exercise is useless. It improves your muscle strength and flexibility. We predict that the majority of our subjects who do anaerobic exercise will be males who do weight lifting. Exercise is a form of release and a way to “rest your mind” so when one exercises they exhaust energy that might otherwise keep him or her awake at night. It’s clear that exercise will keep your body functioning properly and will keep you feeling both relaxed, refreshed and promote deep, restful sleep.
We also want to compare the data we collect for females with that which we collect for males. None of the studies we used to collect information discussed the differences between the effects of exercise on males and females, so we thought that this would be an interesting and informational variable to explore. We are also wondering whether there are any obvious differences between the effects that the two different types of exercise have on males and females. There very well may be a variation in the amount of sleep that males and females get based on how much they exercise and what kind of exercise they do.
We hope that our results will provide proof that exercise is extremely beneficial to one’s health, especially concerning the amount of sleep he or she gets. We are confident that our experiment will generate important health information; because of the evidence other scientists have produced in this area. If only all the college students around the nation could know what an important jewel of knowledge we have uncovered, they would all be getting more restful, peaceful nights of sleep.

*Here are the sites that we researched to find additional information:

http://home.hanmir.com/~lwj2100/00-tr08.htm

http://gulliver.trb.org/publications/tcrp/tcrp_rpt_81.pdf pg 37, 95

http://www.physsportsmed.com/issues/1997/10oct/young.htm

www.fitness.gov/mentalhealth.htm

www.neuronic.com/neuronics/sleepand2.htm

www.holisticonline.com/stress/stress_exercise.htm

www.student.nvcc.edu/home/jvelazquez/FITNESS.htm

SPECIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN
Our experimental design involves the surveying of a large portion of the Western College population. Our investigation will take us to Peabody and Mary Lyon dormitories in order to gather the necessary data from Western students. We will distribute the surveys to individuals in their rooms and collect them once they have been completed. The experimental design stated above will answer our research questions via the survey data sheet provided under “Materials and Methods” in conjunction with the analysis of the data provided by Statview.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
As with most population surveys, the materials required for execution of the experiment are minimal. A pen and paper, along with the below survey is all that is necessary for the actual experimentation. Later, the computer program, Statview, will analyze the recorded data.
We propose to survey Peabody’s first year male and female residents, making sure to gather results from an equal number of western and architecture students. We will then compare the results of this study with the experiment at large. By this process, students will not only gain an understanding of a large population’s exercise and sleep habits but an understanding of their own habits in regard to this study as well.
The Research Time Line for research execution will occur as follows:
 Beginning the week of October 20, our group will begin the surveying of the said population.
 Also during this week, prior to the start of the class, we will distribute the survey to each student in order to obtain information on that particular population.
 After the data has been collected, our group will analyze what we have found by way of computer calculation.
 Following this, we will represent the results graphically.
 Finally, all the data will be compiled into a finished lab.

----Survey----

An Investigation of the Relationship between Exercise and Sleep

1. Are you a:
a. Female
b. Male
2. What is your major?
a. Western
b. Architecture/ Interior Design
3. How many hours do you sleep do you average per weeknight?
a. 1-2
b. 2-4
c. 4-6
d. 6-8
e. 8-10
f. 10-12+
4. Do you nap on weekdays between or after classes? If so, how many hours of naptime do you average per 5-day week?
a. None
b. 1-2
c. 2-4
d. 4-6
e. 6-8
f. 8-10
g. 10-12+
5. During an average week, do you exercise:
a. Nope
b. Once or Twice a Week
c. About 3 Days a Week
d. Every Other Day
e. Every Day

If you circled “a” for number 3, you’re done. Thank you!
If you circled any of the other choices, you should finish our survey.

6. In regard to the type of exercise you perform, is it:
a. Aerobic (cardiovascular workout)
b. Anaerobic (lifting)
c. Both

RESULTS

When deciding about possible relationships to conduct research on, the group looked back to our previous populations lab for inspiration. This lab investigated exercise and its relationship with sleep. We discovered that there was a significant relationship between the amount of sleep someone gets and the amount of exercise one gets. Because we had found significant results with the exercise and sleep research, our group decided to expand on the subject matter and investigate the effect of certain types of exercise on the amount of sleep one gets. So when we do pass our exercise questionnaire out to students, we will be more deeply investigating the same population of Peabody Hall. Therefore, it’s convenient that our previous populations lab research will be useful for our current project.
After we have collected all the completed questionnaires, we will sit down and begin entering them into a statistical program’s table. This program will aid in organization and presentation of our data. Next, we will perform the t-test and hopefully discover that our research has been statistically significant. To display our data graphically, we plan to use box plots, histograms, bar graphs, pie charts, and scatter plots. These graphs will help our group to simply and visually convey our results to an uneducated audience. The key is to make our results easily and quickly understandable. The correlation between kind of exercise and amount of sleep should be easily understandable by the average person when looking at our data presentation. Finally, the most important part of our investigations should be the validity of our research, not the presentation.

Western/Arch. Avg. hour of naps during week Age Male/Female Sleep(avg.)weekday Hrs. of Exercise week & what kind
W 2
19 M 6 14hrs/both
A 3 32 M 5 14hrs/both
A 1 19 M 5 7hrs/cardio
W 1 19 M 7 11/both
W 3 20 M 7 3hrs/cardio
A 4 20 M 8 6hrs/cardio
A 2 18 M 7 8hrs/cardio
A 3 18 M 8 6hrs/lifting
W 1 19 M 8 11hrs/both
W 0 19 M 8 3hrs/lifting
W 0 18 M 8 3hrs/cardio
W 0 18 M 7 4hrs/cardio
W 1 18 M 5 15hrs/both
A 2 18 M 6 11hrs/both
W 0 19 F 7 1hr/cardio
A 0 21 M 7 0
W 2 18 M 7 0
W 2 18 M 6 0
A 2 18 M 8 0
A 3 19 M 6 0
W 3 18 M 6 2hrs/cardio
W 1 18 M 5 6hrs/both
A 4 19 M 7 11hrs/both
W 0 20 M 7 4hrs/cardio
W 0 17 M 6 10hrs/both
W 3 19 M 8 10hrs/both
A 2 18 M 7 0
W 1 19 M 7 0
W 1 19 M 8 0
W 3 18 M 7 3hrs/run
A 2 18 M 9 7hrs/both
A 2 18 M 8 1hr/cardio
W 2 19 M 8 1hr/cardio
W 1 18 M 7 0
W 1 18 M 7 2hrs/lifting
A 1 20 M 8 5hrs/lifting
W 1 17 F 7 0
W 0 18 F 7 0
W 0 21 M 3 5hrs/cardio
A 2 20 M 6 1hr/cardio
A 2 18 F 6 3hrs/cardio
A 3 18 F 9 4hrs/cardio
W 2 19 F 7 4hrs/both
A 2 20 F 7 1hr/cardio
A 1 18 F 8 0
W 1 18 F 6 0
W 0 18 F 8 0
A 0 19 F 6 3hrs/cardio
W 0 19 F 7 0
W 1 19 F 5 0
A 0 19 F 6 2hrs/cardio
W 2 19 f 7 0
A 1 18 F 7 2hrs/cardio
W 3 18 F 6 0
A 4 19 F 7 0
W 2 18 F 7 O
A 2 19 F 6 0
W 1 20 F 6 1hr/cardio
A 3 20 F 6 1hr/cardio
W 1 19 F 6 0
A 0 18 F 6 0
W 0 19 F 6 2hrs/cardio
W 1 18 F 7 0
A 0 18 F 7 0
A 2 19 F 7 1hr/cardio
W 2 20 F 6 0
















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